Benefits of Music Education
By Laura Lewis Brown
Whether your child is the next
Beyonce or more likely to sing her solos in the shower, she is bound to benefit
from some form of music education. Research shows that learning the do-re-mis
can help children excel in ways beyond the basic ABCs.
More Than Just Music
Research has found that learning music facilitates learning other subjects and
enhances skills that children inevitably use in other areas. “A music-rich
experience for children of singing, listening and moving is really bringing a
very serious benefit to children as they progress into more formal learning,”
says Mary Luehrisen, executive director of the National Association of Music
Merchants (NAMM) Foundation, a not-for-profit association that promotes the
benefits of making music.
Making music involves more than the
voice or fingers playing an instrument; a child learning about music has to tap
into multiple skill sets, often simultaneously. For instance, people use their
ears and eyes, as well as large and small muscles, says Kenneth Guilmartin, cofounder
of Music Together, an early childhood music development program for infants
through kindergarteners that involves parents or caregivers in the classes.
“Music learning supports all
learning. Not that Mozart makes you smarter, but it’s a very integrating,
stimulating pastime or activity,” Guilmartin says.
“When you look at children ages two to nine, one of the breakthroughs in that
area is music’s benefit for language development, which is so important at that
stage,” says Luehrisen. While children come into the world ready to decode
sounds and words, music education helps enhance those natural abilities.
“Growing up in a musically rich environment is often advantageous for
children’s language development,” she says. But Luehrisen adds that those
inborn capacities need to be “reinforced, practiced, celebrated,” which can be
done at home or in a more formal music education setting.
According to the Children’s Music
Workshop, the effect of music education on language development can be seen in
the brain. “Recent studies have clearly indicated that musical training
physically develops the part of the left side of the brain known to be involved
with processing language, and can actually wire the brain’s circuits in
specific ways. Linking familiar songs to new information can also help imprint
information on young minds,” the group claims.
This relationship between music and
language development is also socially advantageous to young children. “The
development of language over time tends to enhance parts of the brain that help
process music,” says Dr. Kyle Pruett, clinical professor of child psychiatry at
Yale School of Medicine and a practicing musician. “Language competence is at
the root of social competence. Musical experience strengthens the capacity to
be verbally competent.”
A study by E. Glenn Schellenberg at the University of Toronto at Mississauga,
as published in a 2004 issue of Psychological Science, found a small increase
in the IQs of six-year-olds who were given weekly voice and piano lessons.
Schellenberg provided nine months of piano and voice lessons to a dozen
six-year-olds, drama lessons (to see if exposure to arts in general versus just
music had an effect) to a second group of six-year-olds, and no lessons to a
third group. The children’s IQs were tested before entering the first grade,
then again before entering the second grade.
Surprisingly, the children who were
given music lessons over the school year tested on average three IQ points
higher than the other groups. The drama group didn’t have the same increase in
IQ, but did experience increased social behavior benefits not seen in the
The Brain Works Harder
Research indicates the brain of a musician, even a young one, works differently
than that of a nonmusician. “There’s some good neuroscience research that
children involved in music have larger growth of neural activity than people
not in music training. When you’re a musician and you’re playing an instrument,
you have to be using more of your brain,” says Dr. Eric Rasmussen, chair of the
Early Childhood Music Department at the Peabody Preparatory of The Johns
Hopkins University, where he teaches a specialized music curriculum for
children aged two months to nine years.
In fact, a study led by Ellen
Winner, professor of psychology at Boston College, and Gottfried Schlaug,
professor of neurology at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard
Medical School, found changes in the brain images of children who underwent 15
months of weekly music instruction and practice. The students in the study who
received music instruction had improved sound discrimination and fine motor
tasks, and brain imaging showed changes to the networks in the brain associated
with those abilities, according to the Dana Foundation, a private philanthropic
organization that supports brain research.
Research has also found a causal link between music and spatial intelligence,
which means that understanding music can help children visualize various
elements that should go together, like they would do when solving a math
“We have some pretty good data that
music instruction does reliably improve spatial-temporal skills in children
over time,” explains Pruett, who helped found the Performing Arts Medicine
Association. These skills come into play in solving multistep problems one
would encounter in architecture, engineering, math, art, gaming, and especially
working with computers.
Improved Test Scores
A study published in 2007 by Christopher Johnson, professor of music education
and music therapy at the University of Kansas, revealed that students in
elementary schools with superior music education programs scored around 22
percent higher in English and 20 percent higher in math scores on standardized
tests, compared to schools with low-quality music programs, regardless of
socioeconomic disparities among the schools or school districts. Johnson
compares the concentration that music training requires to the focus needed to
perform well on a standardized test.
Aside from test score results,
Johnson’s study highlights the positive effects that a quality music education
can have on a young child’s success. Luehrisen explains this psychological
phenomenon in two sentences: “Schools that have rigorous programs and
high-quality music and arts teachers probably have high-quality teachers in
other areas. If you have an environment where there are a lot of people doing
creative, smart, great things, joyful things, even people who aren’t doing that
have a tendency to go up and do better.”
And it doesn’t end there: along with
better performance results on concentration-based tasks, music training can
help with basic memory recall. “Formal training in music is also associated
with other cognitive strengths such as verbal recall proficiency,” Pruett says.
“People who have had formal musical training tend to be pretty good at
remembering verbal information stored in memory.”
Music can improve your child’ abilities in learning and other nonmusic tasks,
but it’s important to understand that music does not make one smarter. As
Pruett explains, the many intrinsic benefits to music education include being
disciplined, learning a skill, being part of the music world, managing
performance, being part of something you can be proud of, and even struggling
with a less than perfect teacher.
“It’s important not to oversell how
smart music can make you,” Pruett says. “Music makes your kid interesting and
happy, and smart will come later. It enriches his or her appetite for things
that bring you pleasure and for the friends you meet.”
While parents may hope that enrolling their child in a music program will make
her a better student, the primary reasons to provide your child with a musical
education should be to help them become more musical, to appreciate all aspects
of music, and to respect the process of learning an instrument or learning to
sing, which is valuable on its own merit.
“There is a massive benefit from
being musical that we don’t understand, but it’s individual. Music is for
music’s sake,” Rasmussen says. “The benefit of music education for me is about
being musical. It gives you have a better understanding of yourself. The
horizons are higher when you are involved in music,” he adds. “Your
understanding of art and the world, and how you can think and express yourself,